Conversation Templates

Introducing What “They Say”

* A number of ____________ have recently suggested that _______________.

* It has become common today to dismiss _____________________________.

* In their recent work, Y and Z have offered harsh critiques of _________________

for _________________________.

Introducing “Standard Views”

* Americans today tend to believe that _______________________.

* Conventional wisdom has it that __________________________.

* Common sense seems to dictate that _______________________.

* The standard way of thinking about topic X has it that __________________________.

* It is often said that _________________.

* Many people assume that ______________________________.

Making what “They Say” Something “You Say”

* I’ve always believed that ___________________________.

* When I was a child, I used to think that ___________________________.

* Although I should know better by now, I cannot help thinking that ________________.

* At the same time that I believe ____________________, I also believe      __________________.

Introducing Something Implied or Assumed

* Although none of them have ever said so directly, my teachers have often given me the     impression that ____________________.

* One implication of X’s treatment of _____________ is that _____________________.

* Although X does not say so directly, she apparently assumes that ________________.

* While they rarely admit as much, ___________________ often take for granted that         ____________________.

Introducing an Ongoing Debate

* In discussions of X, one controversial issue has been __________________.

* On the one hand, ______________ argues ______________. On the other hand, _____

contends __________. Others even maintain __________________. My own view is         ____________________.

* When it comes to the topic of _____________, most of us will readily agree that   _______________. Where this agreement usually ends, however, is on the question of

______________.  Whereas some are convinced that ________________, others    maintain that _____________________.

Capturing Authorial Action

* X acknowledges that ________________.

* X agrees that ________________.

* X argues that _______________.

* X believes that __________________.

* X denies/does not deny that ____________________.

* X claims that _____________________.

* X complains that _____________________.

* X concedes that ________________.

* X demonstrates that ________________.

* X deplores the tendency to ______________________.

* X celebrates the fact that ____________________.

* X emphasizes that _________________.

* X insists that __________________.

* X observes that ___________________.

* X questions whether _________________.

* X refutes the claim that ___________________.

* X reminds us that ____________________.

* X reports that ___________________.

* X suggests that ________________.

* X urges us to ____________________.

Introducing Quotations

* X states, “……………”

* As the prominent philosopher X puts it, “…………..”

* According to X, “………………..”

* In her book, _____________, X maintains that “…………….”

* Writing in the journal Commentary, X complains that “………………..”

* In X’s view, “……………”

* X agrees when she writes, “………………”

* X disagrees when he writes, “………………”

* X complicates matters further when he writes, “…………………”

Explaining Quotations

* That is to say, ___________________.

* In other words, __________________.

* In making this comment, X urges us to _______________________.

* X is corroborating the age-old adage that ________________________.

* X’s point is that ___________________.

* The essence of X’s argument is that ____________________.

* That is, ________________________________________________.

* For _____________, ________________ is _________________.

* Similarly, _____________________________________________.

* This idea is _____________________________________________.

* As a result, ___________________ has been/is ____________________.

Disagreeing, with Reasons

* I think X is mistaken because she overlooks ______________________.

* X’s claim that ___________ rests upon the questionable assumption that __________.

* I disagree with X’s view that ___________ because, as recent research has shown,          _________________.

* X contradicts herself/can’t have it both ways. On the one hand, she argues _________.

On the other hand, she also says, ________________.

* By focusing on ______________, X overlooks the deeper problem of _____________.

Agreeing—with a Difference

* I agree that ___________ because my experience ___________ confirms it.

* X surely is right about ________ because, as she may not be aware, recent studies have   shown that ______________.

* X’s theory of ________________ is extremely useful because it sheds insight on the       difficult problem of __________________.

Agreeing and Disagreeing Simultaneously

* Although I agree with X up to a point, I cannot accept his overall conclusion that _______________.

* Although I disagree with much that X says, I fully endorse his final conclusion that          _________________.

 

Signaling Who is Saying What

* X argues ____________________.

* According to both X and Y, _______________.

* Politicians _________________, X argues, should _____________________.

* Most athletes will tell you that _______________________.

* My own view, however, is that _________________.

* I agree, as X may not realize, that _____________________.

* But ___________ are real and, arguably, the most significant factor in ____________.

* But X is wrong that ________________.

* However, it is simply not true that ___________________.

* Indeed, it is highly likely that _________________.

* X’s assertion that __________ does not fit the facts.

* X is right that ________________.

* X is wrong that _______________.

* X is both right and wrong that _________________.

* Yet a sober analysis of the matter reveals __________________.

* Anyone familiar with ________________ should agree that ___________.

Embedding Voice Markers

* X overlooks what I consider an important point about _________________.

* My own view is that what X insists is a ________________ is in fact a ___________.

Entertaining Objections

* Yet some readers may challenge the view that __________________.

* Of course, many will probably disagree with this assertion that _______________.

Naming Your Naysayers

* Here many feminists probably object that ________________.

* Although not all Christians think alike, some of them will probably dispute my claim                    that __________________.

Introducing Objections Informally

* But is my proposal realistic? What are the chances of its actually being adopted?

* However, does the evidence I’ve cited prove conclusively that ________________?

Making Concessions While Still Standing Your Ground

* Although I grant that _______________, I still maintain that _________________.

* Proponents of X are right to argue that ___________________. But that exaggerate         when they claim that __________________.

Indicating Who Cares

* ________ used to think ___________. But recently [or within the past few decades]        _______________ suggests that ____________________.

* These findings challenge the work of earlier researchers, who tended to assume that          _________________.

Establishing Why Your Claims Matter

* These finding have important consequences for the broader domain of _____________.

* My discussion of X is in fact addressing the larger matter of _________________.